Post Conference Report: CARFMS 2014
Day of 8th May / Journée du 8 mai
10h30 à 12h00
Roundtable Session: The Supreme Court of Canada’s Recent Judgements on Article 1F and the Exclusion of Those Who Are Barred From Refugee Protection
Nancy Weisman, Senior Counsel, Refugee Appeal Division, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB)
What the Supreme Court of Canada said about complicity in War crimes and crimes against humanity? This question changed the law and changed the test in Canada. What should be the test? Who should be excluded from the refugee protection? In 2013 (Ezokola v Canada), the Supreme court of Canada says: The Personal and knowing participation test developed by the Federal Court of Appeal in Ramirez V. Canada has, in some cases, been overextended to capture individuals on the basis of complicity by association. A Change to the test is therefore necessary to bring Canadian law in line with international criminal law, the humanitarian purposes of the Refugee Convention, and Fundamental criminal law principles. So, the Contribution-based approach to complicity replaces the personal and knowing participation test. The Court said the New test for complicity is this: to deny a refugee protection there must be serious reasons for considering that an individual has voluntarily made a significant and knowing contribution to a group’s crime or criminal purpose.
Joseph Rikhof, Senior Counsel and Manger of the Law, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Unit, Justice Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
In the past, Canadian jurisprudence has been instrumental in developing exclusion concepts in other jurisdictions, especially the seminal 1992 Ramirez notion of knowing and personal participation in common law countries, such as Australia, New Zealand and the UK but also in civil law countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands for 1F(a); as well the interpretation of the sentence “guilty of acts and purposes against the United Nations” for 1F(c) in the 1999 Pushpanathan decision by the Supreme Court of Canada was followed by the Supreme Court of the UK in the recent decision of Al-Sirri and DD. It quite possible that the 2013 Ezokola judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada with respect to 1F(a) will have a similar impact, at least with respect to its dicta rather than its methodology, in other jurisdictions, as it represents a more granular approach to complicity than the 2010 decisions of its counterparts in the UK and New Zealand.
James C. Simeon, Associate Professor, CRS Scholar, Director, School of Public Policy and Administration, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Professional Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Six Article 1F refugee law cases were examined in this presentation and formed the concluding reflections on the Immigration and Refugees Board of Canada (IRB). The IRB seeks to respond quickly to all Federal Court, Federal Court of Appeal and Supreme Court of Canada judgments. These are reviewed with IRB decision-makers as quickly as reasonably possible so that Members can incorporate them in their decision making as soon as possible. The IRB does not blindly accept the Minister’s interventions under Article 1F nor does the IRB simply apply the dictates of the Federal Court without due consideration of the facts of the case and the evidence before it. The IRB is fiercely independent. The demands on the IRB are increasing with a series of Supreme Court of Canada judgments on Article 1F, (a) and (c). There will also soon be a judgment on Article 1F(b). There is also a growing international jurisprudence on Article 1F. The so-called exclusion clauses, Article 1F (a), (b) and (c), are a growing area of interest in International Refugee Law.
Lorne Waldman, Barrister and Solicitor, President of CARL
Mr Waldman’s presentation was about the case of Pushpanathan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration),  1 S.C.R. 1222. Mr Waldman appeared before the Supreme Court of Canada and argued successfully the Pushpanathan appeal before the court in 1998. That precedent setting case dealt with the interpretation of the Exclusion clauses of the United Nations Refugee Convention. The Court accepted the Appellant’s argument that the exclusion clauses should be given a narrow interpretation. (Human Rights purpose should be driving the interpretation). In This case the Supreme Court was really receptive and not dismissive. The court looked at all of the different tools of interpretation especially under international law and the court understood profoundly that they are not interpreting only a Canadian statute but an international law one. The court held that a decision of the Immigration and Refugee Board should be reviewed on the standard of correctness.
Panel 1: The European Migration and Asylum Policy : Coherence and Incoherence
Araceli Turmo (University Of Geneva): The ECJ and incoherence in the EU asylum policy.
Araceli Turmo explained that the European Migration and Asylum Policy poses numbers of questions. The gap between the European policy itself, its implementation by the member states and its interpretation by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is prominent. The fact that it is a shared competence doesn’t make it easier.
She emphasised that the European legislation is inadequate and insufficient. Indeed, its implementation is left mostly to the member states which keep a large margin of appreciation. She also pointed out the paradox between the aim of the European legislation which is to implement fundamental rights and the policy of restricting immigration flows.
The ECJ Case law tries hardly to compensate the lack of efficiency of the European provisions. However, the Court still relies upon the aims of the provisions to interpret and clarify the qualification criteria of refugee status, as the criteria of active persecution. But it tries its best to insure the respect and implementation of fundamental rights. For that, the Court makes a circumstantial evaluation case by case. In fact, the European legislation on migration and asylum is very specific and technical which prevents the Court to make a large interpretation as it usually can. According to Aracelo, the interpretation of the ECJ is not sufficient. To allow coherence in the European migration system, the common legislation has to be more adequate and clarified.
Sabine Lehr (University of Victoria): examining the paradox: the german discourse of being “not a country of immigration” and its reality of hosting the largest number of refugees in the industrialized world
Sabine Lehr explained that Germany is living a paradoxical situation between the general idea that “Germany is not a country of immigration” and its numbers of immigrants including refugees and asylum seekers. According to an UNHCR Report, Germany is in the top 10 of refugees hosting country in the world. However, the current situation is not that welcoming. In the one hand, it is a hosting country of a large population of migrants. In the other hand, the German political discourse and the general willing is to restrict immigration. An anti-immigrant rhetoric is more and more used by politics from all political boards.
A new feeling of nationalism is growing in Germany. For instance, the book untitled “How Germany abolishes itself”, written by Thillo Sarazin, a politic member of the Social Democratic Party, became a best seller whereas it has been condemned both by UNCERD and ECRI. This book said that Arabic and Turkish people are incapable of integration.
Sabine also referred to a discourse pronounced by the Chancellor Angela Merkel to show that, in Germany, multiculturalism is considered as it affects integration.
In conclusion, it shows the confusion in the German discourse between integration and assimilation.
Ana Beduschi (University of Exeter): an empty shell? social integration of third-country workers in the eu after the single permit directive.
Ana Beduschi explained the content of the Directive 2011/98/EU. It provides a single permit for work and residence. She deplores that European policy on labor migration is sectorial and fragmented.
In this directive, no distinction is made between high skilled migrants and low skilled migrants.
Even if she thinks that this directive is a step forward while it was very difficult to gather a consensus on the directive, Ana questioned the influence of this directive on social integration. First of all, several group of migrant workers are excluded by the directive. Second of all, the directive leaves to the member states the possibility to restrict more its implementation. The risk is that in practice the directive would be empty of the protection of human rights. Plus, the directive doesn’t set up harmonization in this area but maintains the fragmentation and sectorialization of labor migration.
She admitted that at least it provides a minimum sets of social rights. However, this directive alone is not sufficient to improve social integration.
Michele Manocchi (University of Turin): a good “bad” example: some negative effects of labelling processes, securitization of europe, and errors in the management of migrants and asylum seekers. the italian case.
Michele Manocchi explained the Italian context of migrants and asylum seekers.
He deplored that the immigrant flows are always managed in emergency as it has been during the Arab spring. This situation has been explained by the priority made by the government on temporary situations. The Italian system is fragmented. The providers are divided between governmental services (SPRA) and non-governmental organizations which it creates inefficiency and insecurity.
He illustrated the situation with the case of the immigrants forced to immigrate in Italy after Kaddafi sent them as “human bombs”. In this case, the Italian government forced them to claim the refugee status. But as the Commission didn’t hear their claims, the situation get worse. The Italian government gave them automatically the humanitarian status. But as a result of this whole situation, many of them live in a precarious situation left without no support.
According to Michele, the lack of structure in the system and the governmental management of immigration impact the situation of migrants. The negative consequences are insecurity, homeless situation and bad living conditions for the migrants.
Panel 2 : Travail Migrant Temporaire : Nouvelles Approches et Théories.
Modérateur : Professeur Morgan Poteet.
Prof. Sylvie Gravel : L’embauche des travailleurs étrangers temporaires dans les secteurs saisonniers : les avantages économiques et les obligations de gestion de la diversité. L’étude a pour objectif de documenter les enjeux de gestion via l’embauche des travailleurs étrangers temporaires et les conditions de travail des travailleurs saisonniers (secteur agricole, transformation alimentaire, hôtellerie, etc.). Grâce à une étude exploratoire (entrevues auprès d’informateurs-clés, focus groupes auprès de TÉT et analyse des résultats d’enquêtes menées par la Commission des Normes du Travail du Québec (CNT)), le professeur Sylvie Gravel et ses collaborateurs en viennent à la conclusion que l’embauche des TÉT est une solution coûteuse, mais indispensable à la productivité et à la croissance des entreprises saisonnières. C’est d’ailleurs, selon les employeurs, une solution efficace, bien que fragile.
Aussi, il est important de trouver un juste équilibre entre l’embauche des TÉT et celle des travailleurs locaux, d’impliquer tous les paliers gouvernementaux dans l’analyse des solutions destinées à maintenir et à faire croître les entreprises saisonnières. De plus, il est important d’exercer une surveillance sur l’application des droits des TÉT afin d’éviter de niveler à la baisse les conditions de travail des emplois saisonniers et mener une analyse économique rigoureuse de l’impact de l’embauche des TÉT dans ces divers secteurs économiques.
Prof. Micheline Labelle et Prof. Sid Ahmed Soussi : Travail migrant temporaire, rapport salarial et accès aux droits sociaux du travail : proposition d’un cadre théorique. La présentation a pour objet de proposer un cadre théorique en cours d’élaboration dans le cadre d’une demande CRSH portant sur les impacts des trois principaux programmes en matière de travailleurs temporaires (PAFR, PTAS et PTET-PS) qui ont aujourd’hui atteint une notoriété internationale. Ces impacts sont au nombre de trois : impact sur la structure de l’emploi, impact sur le rapport salarial et l’action syndicale et impact sur le processus migratoire en amont.
Le cadre théorique proposé se divise ainsi en trois axes : (a) les migrations internationales et la division internationale du travail, (b) les transformations du rapport salarial et les effets sur les relations du travail et la syndicalisation, (c) TMT, les niches ethnicisées et les réseaux transnationaux de migrants : la portée explicative des théories du transnationalisme et de la citoyenneté. Le discours politique, juridique ou encore sociologique sur la question des travailleurs étrangers temporaires exigent, selon le professeur Micheline Labelle, que l’on tienne compte des modes d’incorporation différentiée ou de non-incorporation différentiée dans les sociétés d’accueils afin de se distancer de postures analytiques homogénéisantes pouvant mener à des stéréotypes.
- Lucio Castracani: Notes sur le régime de contrôle de la force de travail migrant : le cas des travailleurs temporaires au Canada. La recherche de M. Castracani porte sur le contrôle des travailleurs temporaires dans le secteur de l’agroalimentaire au Québec. Selon lui, toute critique ou proposition visant à améliorer les programmes de travailleurs temporaires devrait prendre en compte les autres « figures » du travail précaire que ce soient les travailleurs sans papiers ou les travailleurs « piégés » dans les systèmes d’agences de placement. Plutôt que de s’en tenir au cadre juridique existant, M. Catracani propose plutôt que ce cadre soit élargi et nuancé par les sciences sociales au sein même de leurs recherches.
Panel 3: An impact Evaluation of Client Support Services for Government Assisted Refugees : Staff Perspectives and Startegies
We start the presentations with Ashley Korn, the coordinator of the Client Support Service at the YMCA of the Greater Toronto, a comprehensive client-centered case management program for Government-assisted refugees (GARs), which is the original coordinator center for another six agencies across Ontario, presents how the CSS help the refugees on the resettlement context. Along with Michaela Hynie, PhD Associate Director of York Institute for Health Research Associate Professor, Departement of Psychology, they conducted an impact study to hearing the voice of the clients from the Government-Assisted refugees program (GARs), with their experience with resettlement in Ontario. The YMCA plays a role of coordinator between the different agencies to set and maintain programs standards and policies, to have programs adapted to the needs of each local partner to deliver the best help and the best programs to the refugees in understanding that one size not fit all. Standardize model and approaches are important but they need to be flexible.
Refugees are facing many obstacles in their integration and their resettlement. All aspects of integration are interconnected to each other. Housing, employment, education, language skills and social bonds within refugee communities can facilitate social integration. The Goal of the CSS is to be a comprehensive and client center, to provide services for different client needs, because they don’t have standardized clients. What is unique about the program, is that its looking to improve the capacity of the communities to facilitate the integration for the refugees, understanding that integration is a two-way street. That was one of the key findings of the study. Understanding that changes are happening in the refugees, but changes are happening in the communities. Successful integrations can only be documented when you see changes in the communities and the communities are receptive to the unique needs of refugees because you don’t get equal outcomes or equal opportunities if the communities are not receptive to that and to make some changes.
Panel 4: Settlement of Forced Migrants: Local Experiences and Policies.
Susan McGarth & Duncan MacLaren
This study explored and identified the major challenges experienced by the Karen community in Australia. A social integration framework was presented which demonstrated the importance of taking in consideration personal aspects (sense of belonging and feeling of safety and security) and environmental aspects (social connections and institutional adaptation) of migration and not only the functional integration of migrants and their cultural and linguistic integration. Findings demonstrated that the Karen experienced similar issues as other migrants but at a more severe level. Major issues were the lack of knowledge of English, low levels of education and literacy, lack of preparation prior to migration and lack of familiarity with urban context. Additionally, the Karen had difficulty connecting with the host community, Australia, and stayed connected globally with the Karen community.
Juan Pablo Serrano Frattali (ABSENT)
Danesh Jayajtilaka, Kopalapillai Amirthaligam, Rajith W. D. Lakshman & Dhammika Herath
This paper studies the different impacts between development induced displacement (DID) and conflict induced displacement (CID). It explores the case of post war Sri Lanka and more specifically the case of Colombo for DID and Jaffna for CID. In the case of Colombo, migrants were displaced from slums into Colombo. However, migrants in Colombo felt a sense of homelessness, marginalization, and loss of community as well as loss of freedom (felt like they were prisoners). Migrants also felt insecure (drugs, violence) and they were very worried about their children particularly in regards to their education and the environment in which they were raised. In the case of Jaffna, conflict has decreased and there is now a sense of peace and new freedom and with that came some negative and positive changes. Some positive changes include having facilities, buildings, a sense of home and a feeling of safety as well as access to services (education, health). Negative changes are mainly in relation with cultural changes (cell phones, internet, drinking etc…). In conclusion, this study demonstrated significant differences in the impacts of displacement as well as the wellbeing of individuals between Colombo and Jaffna; Jaffna migrants are generally happier than Colombo migrants.
André Ricci Amorim
This study concentrated on the Brazilian legal system in regards to refugees. At first, the Brazilian government only accepted Europeans as refugees however since 1989, Brazil started allow anyone who could prove that he/she was oppressed or had been oppressed to apply to by a refugee. A positive aspect of the Brazilian legal system is that asylum seekers have some rights upon arriving in Brazil (application and legal procedure free of charge, no punishment for illegal entry, right to work and study while they wait for acceptance). Additionally, claims from refugees living in “harder” areas were generally accepted (Somalia, Syria and Afghanistan). Some major problems faced by refugees are the waiting time for the answers to their claims, difficult local integration due to the lack of Portuguese programs, the lack of knowledge by legal professionals about the legal framework in regards to refugees in Brazil as well as the low rate of acceptance of claims.
Panel 5: Refugee Protection: Historical, Theoritical, Regional Perspectives.
Chair: Graham Hudson
Amrita Hari: Temporariness, rights, and citizenship: Striking similarities despite distinct rationales for admission
Low-skilled temporary foreign workers and refugee claimants, though seemingly distinct groups, based on the rationale for admission to Canada, occupy a low rung in the hierarchy of rights and entitlements to citizenship in Canada, inevitably affecting their social and economic outcomes in the host society. We can understand this phenomenon through four examples: changes to the system of admission access to social assistance, access to necessary and appropriate health care, access to permanent residence and in turn opportunities for family reunification.
Marina Sharpe, OAU AND AU engagement with refugee protection in Africa
Evaluations of the extent and efficacy of Organization of African Unity (OAU) and African Union (AU) engagement with refugee protection in Africa seem to depend on who stands in judgment. The impression given by officials is one of a highly engaged and effective organisation. Academics have been less generous in their assessments, seizing in particular on the OAU’s failure to work systematically for the implementation of the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. Such divergent views stem in part from the lack of exhaustive accounts of OAU and AU engagement with refugee protection.
Justin Margolis: Winning Gold at Passport Control Asylum-Seeking Olympians and the Olympic Passport
Every two years, hundreds of thousands of people travel for the Olympic Games, but not all of them return home. At almost every Olympiad since the 1948 London Summer Games, in addition to spectators, Olympic Family Members (athletes, coaches, officials, media) claim asylum in the Olympic host country. These individuals hold Olympic ID Cards issued by the IOC, that guarantee them access to the host country during the Games, and hinder national migration authorities in their work. This paper presents the history of Olympic “athlete defection” and analyzes the policies employed by the Greek (2004), Italian (2006), Canadian (2010), and British (2012) Governments to manage the exponential increase of temporary arrivals surrounding the Olympic Games while respecting the Olympic Charter.
Claire Tempier and Petra Molnar Diop: SINGA: Profiling ICT Use in Canada
Refugee and Refugee Support Organizations Perspectives
The purpose of this organisation is to provide a comparative analysis of how host countries are coping with influx of refugees and refugee claimants and how host countries are making use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to better address the needs of refugees. Create a network of individuals interested in and conscious of the role that ICTs can play in assisting refugees to build new lives in the countries in which they settle. Moreover, these tools can raise awareness about best practices surrounding the use of ICTs and provide a comprehensive review of the use of ICTs by refugee support organizations.
Bahlbi Malk: Absent
1:00 à 2:30 PM
Panel 1: Immigration and Refugee System: Coherence and Incoherence.
Sule Tomkinson This dissertation focused on the refugee determination process in Canada. It studied more specifically the reasons behind the discrepancy between refugee acceptance rates of Board Members. It was demonstrated that the success of a claim depended not only on the strength of the case but also on who heard the case. This paper argued that the discrepancy in the acceptance and rejection of a case comes from the professional socialization in regards to the instructions that they are given (dual ambitions, being soft yet firm), working conditions (complexity of the job, stress) as well as the expectations (productivity, not being mediatised). Based on how each member is socialized in regards to these three factors, the Board enables two hearing styles; the suspicious chronologist (focused on finding frauds and lies) and the neutral moderate (gives the benefit of the doubt).
John Carlaw This paper seeks to come to some understanding of what the Conservatives are up to. It seeks to find some coherence in the incoherence of recent immigration and refugee polices under the conservative government by examining the evolution of the party. Conservatives have tried to appeal to ethnic voters and have apologized for the Chinese head tax and permitted the recognition of historic wrongs which is something the Liberal party was not willing to do (might be for party competition that they did apologize). There is a lot of incoherence in the party politics since there have been controversial directions due to competing social forces. In order to find coherence, this paper explored different authors and theories such as Gramsci, Poulantzas and Hall’s Authoritarian Populism with Hall being the most influential.
Raluca Bejan & Naomi Lightman This presentation was a part of a larger project that is mapping the fundamental shifts within the Canadian immigration policy under Harper’s government. This presentation concentrated on the refugee part of that project which is observed through the recent Bill C-31 which passed in 2012. This bill made numerous controversial changes to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. Immigration is now based on a class-based theoretical framework; there are 1% of migrants which are seen as the “elite migrants”, the highly skilled professionals and then there is the 99% who are part of the family class. A division of migrants between deserving and undeserving has been made in regards to health care programs. Lastly, under Harper’s government there have been a record number of deportations.
Janneka Beeksma : This essay explores the increase of immigration detention as a means to control irregular migration. It aims to bring coherence to different repressive immigration policies and practices by exposing their undermining migration control policy frameworks. The study was conducted in the Netherlands which has one of the most controversial detention policies. A chart was presented that demonstrated the different layers of such policies and practices which included 4 layers: immigration detention (the administrative act), crimmigration (immigration with crime-based controls), migration-control (states want control of migrants) and migration-securitization (exclude undesired migrants). A new subjective framework comes out of the objective factors; all these factors interact to create a new framework.
Panel 2: Migration Management: Age, Gender and Human Rights.
Chair: Deborah Morrish.
Panelists: Katelyn Scorer, Christina Clark-Kazak, Furio De Angelis, Anna Pielin and Sara Khan.
Katelyn Scorer: Exploring the Vulnerability of LGBT Refugees in Mass Displacement. In her presentation, Katelyn Scorer explores the issue of LGBT refugees in a mass displacement context. She underscores the failures of international refugee law regarding LGBT refugees. At the end of her work, she submits four potential recommendations: (a) expediting resettlement processes for LGBT refugees, (b) a proper training on the needs of the LGBT refugee, (c) initiatives should partner with local advocacy organizations in host states and (d) NGOs have to work in collaboration with international agencies and regulatory bodies.
Christina Clark-Kazak: Coherence and Incoherence in Canada’s Approach to Age Issues in Migration Management. Christina Clark-Kazak proposes a social age analysis of the Canadian legislation regarding immigration and refugee issues. In addition to historic discriminations like gender, race and many other factors within the Canadian migration policies and legislation, she outlines another potential factor of discrimination: the age. In her conclusions, she advocates for a concerted action to challenge this discrimination and the assumptions underlying it, similar to historic discrimination based on race, gender, etc. She argues that the chronological age is not a sufficient measurement of age and underscores the need for a greater attention to social age. Finally, she thinks that we need to move away from research, policies and programs that focus solely on one age group.
Furio De Angelis: Age, Gender, Diversity: the Inclusive Dimension of Refugee Protection. In his presentation, Furio De Angelis advocates for a use of an age, gender and diversity [AGD] approach rater than an administration of misery or a bureaucratic, process-oriented culture in the migration management context. For him, it is important to understand the particular needs of the refugees, not as homogenous groups, but as individuals with specific backgrounds, aspirations and hopes. This approach is gaining respect and acceptance also in government analysis of their own asylum programs. In one hand, refugee work is based on human compassion, but in another hand, it is also application of legal norms and a form of migration management work and resettlement solution. Finally, capturing and balancing this reality while doing justice to the individual requests and needs is one of the most challenging aspects of refugee protection.
Anna Pielin: Effectively Stateless Children. Effective stateless is about recognition and access to the community. In her research, Anna Pielin studies the case of children without any legal existence in Cambodia. In this country, without registration, children are not able to go to school, they have a limited access to health care, health facilities or justice and they haven’t got a nationality or any legal status. In addition, there is no effective management of migration in Cambodia and thus it is difficult to know where children come from. Otherwise, Anna Pielin underscores the obstacles to the registration of these children in the legislation of the country like the criterion of a marital status for their parents. To solve this problem, Ana Pielin argues that is possible, like it has been done elsewhere in Asia, to put in every single place a person in charge of notifying every birth to the government wherever it is possible (in a hospital, a prison or even in a moving vehicle).
Prof. Sara Kahn: « Do you think this tradition is good for girls? »: Understanding the Experiences of Women Fleeing Female Circumcision and seeking asylum in the West. The presentation of Professor Kahn is about the phenomenon of circumcision which still exists in twenty-nine countries around the world, in particular in the Middle-east and Africa. On the issue, western feminists, such as Mary Daly, defined this practice as « barbaric » and « unspeakable atrocity ». But Post-Colonial Feminists interprets this opposition to circumcision by western feminists as a project to re-colonize the bodies of non-western women. Today, it is difficult to find a research which focus on women who are fleeing their home countries in order to protect their daughters form that practice. Thanks to interviews with some of these women in Washington DC and New York/New Jersey, Professor Kahn highlighted some issues that women are dealing with. First, they were banished from their communities/families in their home country but also from their diaspora. Another dilemma is that they fear that nobody will want to marry them.
Panel 3: Critical Inquiries into Migration Management : The Global and Regional Level
Leaded by Martin Geiger and Victor Piché as discussant, the panel discussed about implementation of migration policies and more inclusive and less incoherent integration requires exceeding the order optimization and elimination of inconsistencies. This includes rethinking labels and practices such as “refugee” and “migrant worker”. Adèle Garnier, Lecturer from Macquarie University in Australia, argue on the relation between UNHCR and the ILO particularly with the refugees’ right to work. Protecting the right to work is the principal mandate of the ILO while the UN Refugee Convention develops the non-discrimination on the market of refugees. The mandates and the activities for the protection of the right to work, of the both organisations same to be very complementary, but the differences in their structure and in the visions regards to the refugee situation put a limit to the coordination and effectiveness of both organisations. Victoria Simmons, PhD Candidate at Carleton University, presents a paper Gender and Migration Governance in Argentina: Subordinating Human Rights to the Regulation Agenda, in which they argue that international organisations govern in a particular way the problematic of migration. On one hand they try to point the necessity of protecting certain rights of migrant, but on the other hand, no such programs are created to do so. In consequences, no real work, or so little, is done in this matter. Bethany Hastie, PhD Candidate at McGill University, argue that the recognition of the trafficking in human beings as a transnational crime gave rise to improved legal strategies and politics aiming at the protection of the vulnerable migrants who can be, or become a victim. But instead of protecting the victim, the policies are used to discipline and discouraged migrant. Philippe M. Frowd, PhD Candidate at the McMaster University, presents Border Management in West Africa: Struggling for Coherence in which he argues that borders are institutional space where multiple actors are competing. The paper proposes an inductive approach using the metaphor of “assembly” to enter the disaggregated and heterogeneous nature of border management in West Africa by studying three cases, Spain’s alliance of security and development imperatives in Senegal and Mauritania, competing rationales for an EU-funded border post program in Mauritania, and Senegal’s fragmented approach to biometric identification.
Panel 4: A Search for Coherence: War-affected Children and Youth in Quebec
Myriam Denov, Natasha Blanchet-Cohen, War-affected Youth’s Resettlement Experiences in Quebec: Silence & Taboo
Drawing upon in-depth interviews with a sample of 20 war-affected youth living in Quebec, this presentation explores the ways in which these youth experience resettlement, their perceived needs, and how they are currently being supported in the education and health systems. The presentation highlights the ways in which upon resettlement, youth’s past experiences of war and the professional responses to these experiences are often shrouded in silence and taboo. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the implications for policy and practice.
Claudia Mitchell, Warren Linds, Miranda D’Amica, Bree Akesson, Fatima Khan, Myriam Denov, Ethical Beginnings and Ethical Endings: Arts-Based Participatory Research with Youth Affected by Armed Conflict
While there are many approaches to working with war-affected children, participatory arts-based methods such a photo voice, drama, and drawing are being increasingly relied upon. However, what are the ethical issues and how are researchers and practitioners taking up theses issues in school, community and “on the street” settings? By reviewing the literature on ethical issues that may arise when working with children through arts-based methods, this presentation identifies four critical ethical issues that represent specific challenges in relation to children affected by war: (1) informed consent; (2) truth, interpretation, and representation; (3) dangerous emotional terrain; and (4) aesthetics. The presentation highlights current gaps in the research and poses several unanswered questions in arts-based research with war-affected children.
Sarah Fraser, Jaswant Guzder, Sharon Bond, Emilie Blackburn, Immigrant Children and Youth with Premigratory War Trauma: An Invisible and Under-Serviced Population
This presentation explores the policies that govern current services in order to better reflect upon the systemic context within which our educational, health and social services are offered to refugee children having experienced war and offers recommendations that would allow for more coherent and adapted services within our current systems of care.
Panel 5: Migration, Refuge et droits humains
Chair : Nanette Neuwahl
Loe Lagrange : L’adoption de listes de pays d’origine sûrs dans l’Union européenne : une gestion incohérente voire illégale de l’immigration sous couvert d’efficacité
Cette étude se limite au phénomène tel qu’il existe au sein de l’Union européenne. En effet, cette circonscription permet d’analyser la situation à la lumière d’un des effets recherchés à savoir l’harmonisation et la cohérence à l’échelle de l’UE de la politique d’asile. Pour les États d’accueil, une politique d’asile efficace est une politique d’asile qui permet de protéger rapidement et certainement ceux qui en ont besoin tout en écartant le plus tôt possible les migrants ne répondant pas aux critères d’obtention d’une protection internationale du circuit juridique et social des demandes d’asile. Autrement dit, l’efficacité vise d’une part le désengorgement des instances d’asile, grâce auquel les demandes « légitimes » seront traitées avec plus de soin, et d’autre part la minimisation des dépenses publiques (aides sociales pendant la procédure) pour des demandeurs « non légitimes ».
Giulia Raimondo : L’Affaire Hirsi Jamaa et autres c. Italie.
Les requérants, 11 ressortissants somaliens et 13 ressortissants érythréens ont quitté la Lybie avec un groupe d’environ 200 personnes à bord de trois embarcations dans le but de rejoindre les côtes italiennes. Les occupants des embarcations interceptées furent transférés sur les navires militaires italiens, reconduits à Tripoli et livrés aux autorités libyennes, malgré leur opposition. Ces évènements se déroulent dans un contexte défavorable aux réfugiés puisque La Libye ne connaît pas le droit d’asile. Cet État ne dispose pas d’une procédure d’asile et n’est pas partie à la Convention de Genève ni à son Protocole de 1967.Les autorités ne font aucune distinction entre les réfugiés, les demandeurs d’asile et d’autres migrants clandestins Nombreux sont les rapports publiés par des organisations nationales et internationales ainsi que par des ONG qui déplorent les conditions de détention et de vie des migrants en Libye à l’époque des faits.
Sarah Barrere : La protection des victimes de traite des êtres humains
Le Canada lutte contre la traite des êtres humains en ayant recours à certains articles du Code criminel et à travers les dispositions de la Loi sur l’Immigration. Le code criminel prohibe expressément la traite des personnes au Canada. Le consentement de la victime au trafic de sa personne n’est jamais une défense valide du fait de son exploitation inhérente à une infraction de cette nature. La loi sur l’immigration et la protection des réfugiés constitue également une réelle avancée dans le domaine. L’une des solutions pour accroître la protection des victimes de traite est la gestion des flux migratoires et des visas. En effet, même si les victimes ont la possibilité de faire une demande d’asile pour raisons humanitaires, cela ne constitue pas une garantie suffisante de protection pour les inciter à témoigner contre les trafiquants.
Adrien Jouan : Des politiques d’immigration aux politiques d’éducation : la lutte pour la scolarisation des enfants sans-papiers à Montréal
En une vingtaine d’années, le renforcement du contrôle des frontières et la lutte contre l’immigration illégale sont devenus des objectifs prioritaires des politiques d’immigration de la plupart des pays receveurs de migrants. Ces politiques ont instauré non seulement une surveillance accrue au niveau des frontières mais également un renforcement des dispositifs de contrôle, d’enfermement et d’expulsion à l’intérieur même des territoires nationaux (De Genova et Peutz 2010). Cette orientation politique connaît cependant des résistances. L’une de ces résistances, menées à Montréal par le Collectif Éducation Sans Frontières a pour objectif de faire reconnaitre et respecter le droit pour tous les enfants, y compris ceux de parents sans-papiers, d’accéder à l’école publique gratuitement au Québec. À partir d’une enquête ethnographique, l’auteur montre comment la lutte engagée par ce collectif influait sur la contestation des politiques d’immigration en partie ancrée, à Montréal, sur le terrain des politiques éducatives.
Christophe Mafuta : absent
4:30 à 6:00 PM
Panel 1: Integration of Migrants and Refugees: Local, Regional and Comparative Perspectives
Tess Ancton, (Mis)Interpreting Refugee Voices: Comparing the Use of Interpreters in Asylum Claims in Canada, South Africa, and the United States
In Canada, while interpreters are provided to maintain procedural fairness, case law reveals incoherence in judicial reviews of refugee decisions due to inadequate interpretation. Interpretation is required to be “continuous, precise, competent, impartial and contemporaneous”, yet case law offers little useful guidance on what this means. By contrast, South African law requires that interpreters be provided where “necessary and practicable”. However, with financial constraints and because of the high volume of asylum claimants and diversity of languages spoken, providing an interpreter will rarely be practicable. Despite these difficulties, quality interpretation is essential for good refugee decision-making in both Canada and South Africa, and the interpreter’s important role in telling the refugee story warrants further investigation.
Marketa Seidlova, Managing Integration of Immigrants in France: National Policy Compared with Everyday Practise
The number of immigrants can be influenced by policy measures only if the country wants to increase the number of immigrants as workers. To stop the immigration- When there are already some immigrants living in the country- is unrealistic, due to the existing networks of relations between immigrants and their compatriots in the country of origin, regardless of the other legal aspects, such as the right to family reunification. The research also showed that the policy measures of studied cities/ districts towards immigrants were significantly influenced by the size of immigrant population, the duration of its presence in the city and its composition (country of origin, type of migration, etc.) and also by the political persuasion of the city leaders. The most striking difference between the policy declared at the national level and the policy implemented in daily practice was discovered in the city of Paris.
Geraldina Polanco, Regulating Belonging: Market-Driven Immigration Policies and the Turn Towards Precarity
This presentation explores recent changes made to Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) to empirically theorize the changing meanings of belonging and contexts of reception in Canada. Through examining how employers and industry associations in western Canada’s hospitality sector have lobbied for employer-friendly imigration policies (including Tim Hortons), it shows how Canada has institutionalized a shift from a multicultural version of belonging toward a market-driven version of belonging, with cultural and legal implications to conditions of regulating belonging. Drawing from 62 semi-structured interviews and ethnographic field research in Canada and the Philippines, Miss Polanco shows how the expansion of the TFWP has confined a growing number of (primarily feminized and racialized) migrant workers to insecure and ambiguous systems for transitioning from temporary to permanent status. (A new precarious migration labour regime) As she shows, this has implications for the worksite dynamics and the power workers can exercise behind the counter of worksites like Tim Hortons restaurants. She concludes by theorizing how these policy changes in immigration programminga are altering social hierarchies and life trajectories of a growing number of newcomers.
Ibrahima Amadou Dia, Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Understanding their Fundamental Challenges and Assessing the International, Regional and National Human Rights, Humanitarian, Security and Developmental Responses to Address their Needs: Mr Amadou Dia was Absent.
Panel 2: Cohérences et incohérences dans les politiques d’accueil et d’intégration des migrants et des réfugiés.
Modérateur : Professeur Delphine Nakache.
Panélistes : Dietmar Loch, Emeline Zougbede, Anael Tchoulfian et Nathalie Blais.
Prof. Dietmar Loch : Entre émeutes urbaines et politiques de la ville : l’intégration des migrants dans l’agglomération urbaine de Lyon (France). Le but de la présentation est d’analyser les processus d’intégration au sein d’une société urbaine (l’agglomération lyonnaise). Il existe un débat en France depuis plusieurs années concernant la pérennité des processus d’intégration face aux lacunes dans la gestion de la diversité. Existe-t-il encore une solidarité dans nos sociétés urbaines fragmentées? Ce qui détruit les modèles, c’est le développement économique qui a ses propres formes spatiales avec la ségrégation résidentielle, scolaire, etc. La question de déconcentrer la pauvreté est donc une question qui émerge progressivement. Toutefois, pour certains sociologues : la proximité spatiale n’implique pas la proximité sociale. On peut donc s’interroger sur la pertinence de vouloir « déplacer » ou « déconcentrer » la pauvreté. Enfin, en ce qui a trait au modèle républicain, un paradoxe se fait ressentir avec l’assimilation d’une part et l’exclusion sociale de l’autre.
Emeline Zougbede : Le jeu de la régularisation : l’exemple de la circulaire Valls. Depuis le début des années 2000, on observe un changement de paradigme dans la conception des politiques migratoires françaises. En effet, la sélection des migrants se fait de plus en plus en fonction des besoins du marché du travail national. La recherche de Mme Zougbede porte ainsi sur l’impact de la nouvelle circulaire dite « Valls » dans le cadre de ce nouveau paradigme. Aussi, en guise de conclusion, Mme Zougbede soutien que les titres de séjour sont de plus en plus liés à la durée des contrats de travail et que plusieurs incohérences persistent, soient: l’appréciation non uniforme des dossiers, l’importance du pouvoir accordé aux employeurs ou encore les différents rapports de force dont résulte la gestion des migrations.
Anael Tchoulfian : Accueil et intégration des demandeurs d’asile en France : initiatives et incohérences. La présentation de M. Tchoulfian porte sur les Centres d’accueil des demandeurs d’asile (CADA) et plus précisément sur les travailleurs sociaux qui y sont employés. Entre 2001 et 2006, le dispositif national d’accueil français fut réformé par la refonte du Code de l’action sociale et des familles. En 2012, on comptait 365 centres d’accueil en France. M. Tchoulfian identifie trois preuves de la perversion du rôle des travailleurs sociaux par l’État : (a) dans la procédure d’admission aux CADA, (b) par le fichage électronique « fortuit » des demandeurs d’asile et (c) dans la sortie des demandeurs d’asile débouté des centres. En conclusion, il met l’accent sur l’incompatibilité entre le rôle du travailleur social et la logique administrative qui s’impose au sein des CADA.
Nathalie Blais : La marchandisation : un concept applicable aux travailleurs qualifiés? Selon Nathalie Blais, une réflexion développée à partir du droit international du travail peut offrir un angle d’analyse pertinent pour comprendre la situation des travailleurs qualifiés qui font le choix de s’installer dans les régions du Québec. En conclusion, Mme Blais soutien qu’il faut que les politiques migratoires du Québec reviennent à leur objectif d’origine en favorisant l’insertion des nouveaux migrants par l’accueil et le soutien afin que ceux-ci puissent mieux évoluer dans leur nouveau contexte. Plus fondamentalement, ce principe de solidarité met en action le concept de dignité qui cesse de dissocier la personne de sa force de travail.
Panel 3: Web-Based Platforms for the Production and Mobilization of Knowledge in Refugee and Forced Migration Studies: The CARFMS Online Research and Teaching Tool and Practitioners Forum (ORTT&PF) and Beyond
During this panel, the web-based platform ORTT&PF has been presented. The first aim of this platform is to assist members with their teaching and researches and to provide a unique forum.
It is now an open source and also a collection of research materials on refugees and forced migration studies. It has been created in the general aim to give to teachers and researchers a practical tool.
The platform has been technically explained during this panel. Its idea is to allow sharing information and expertise in the field of migration. With the forum, it is expected that people interested in those questions share their analyses and point of view on diverse subjects around forced migrations. The objective is to gather knowledge on those subjects from academics, politics, practitioners, etc.
The use of this platform has been tested in teaching by some of the speakers. Each of them gave a feedback of their experiences. As a result of these different experiences, the platform received a good welcome by the student community. It appears that the students thought that it is an easy to use and interactive tool. They enjoyed to use it for their academic work. They found it very interesting and they liked the idea to refer to this international resource.
It is also a very great and innovate place of production of knowledge.
In conclusion, this platform seems to answer the promises of a useful and interactive tool on migration studies for studying, teaching and researching within the numeric era.
Panel 4: Mobilization of knowledge and new research methods in Migration and refugee studies
Chair: Joseph Rickhof
Resiliency resistance and relationships: refugees learning and storytelling through participory photography
Susan Brigham, Catherine Baillie Abidi, Sylvia Catalayud, David Neilson
The current policies and discourse on migration, both globally and in Canada, have been developed within an anti-refugee ideological framework. This ideology has fused migration with criminality, fear and security. Given the international, national, and regional trends in migration, we explore how refugees in the Atlantic Canadian region are impacted not only by policies and practices but by the social, cultural and political contexts in which they settle. This study utilizes an arts-informed participatory photography methodology which centers the perspectives and voices of the participants. Photography is used as a tool to expand the depth and breadth of the research participants’ voices.
Susan McGrath, Michele Millard Knowledge Globally: the Refugee Research Network
The Refugee Research Network (RRN) seeks to generate and mobilize knowledge globally among scholars, practitioners and policy makers to benefit people who have been forcibly displaced. Funded in 2008 by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and hosted by the Centre for Refugee Studies at York University in Toronto, the RRN has sought to build a network of networks which promotes connections throughout the field of refugee and forced migration studies. The analysis also considers the challenges to seeking the fair and equitable globalization of knowledge within and across regions with considerable disparities in capacity and resources.
Reconstruction resilience: participatory action research, photovoice methodology and refugee-informed concept of resilience
Theories of resiliency, as applied to refugees, emerged within Western, socio-cultural constructions of adversity, adaptation, and maladaptation. Resiliency literature is limited in its ability to contribute to relevant constructions of the lived experience of refugees. Current methodological approaches over-emphasize Western values and reinforce the marginalization of refugees, limiting their ability to voice their experiences and restricting their capacity to meaningfully contribute to academic discourse. Participatory Action Research (PAR), a research methodology that prioritizes silenced voices and emphasizes collaboration, democratic co-participation and social justice, may serve as a corrective. In this study, researchers were approached by eight Sudanese refugee women resettled in Canada who were interested in collectively exploring alternative notions of resilience through reflection, dialogue, and action.
Panel 5: Refugee Settlement, Youth and Education
Leaded by the Chair Najib Raie, the panel start with Heather Donald and Sandy Chan who presented : Higher Education in the margins : Comparative refugee-informed perspectives on distance learning in the Global South, their fieldwork experience on two programs for higher education particularly in Malawi and at the Thailand and Burma border. They studied, among others, the challenges of the reception of the higher education outside the limits of the nation state and the challenges the use of the technologies can be. They concluded that technology improves access to knowledge, but represents many challenges around learning. Also, we must continue to engage students and graduates to move more towards distance learning programs so that we can keep helping them and improve the process. Followed by the presentation of Nicole Maine, on: Orienting Refugee Youth Moving to Canada, The Potential of Pre-Departure Programs demonstrating that youth refugees are unfortunately mostly ignored in government programs although most of the time, they are the one making the decisions in their families. She analyzed how pre-departure programs can be improved and how they can help youth refugee in their resettlement in Canada and concluded that the one-fits-all thinking doesn’t work and it is imperative to have specialized orientation to help them.
The third presentation was by, Meredith Verma, from Simon Fraser University, who presents a paper named: Systemic solutions for Refugee Settlement in schools and Community. Refugees manage to be underequipped to make a commitment to settle down in their new community. They are facing many challenges as health, education, dental care and basis knowledge of urban living. The paper provide a critical analysis of the refuges basics needs in their pre-settlement and gave some solutions and responses to improve refugees’ settlement in their new community. We finish with a presentation of David Este and Christa Sato, who presented a study : Resilience in Sudanese families in Canada : A qualitative Study, which demonstrate the issues of the resilience in the Sudanese families who came in Canada in the last twenty years to be able to find strategies who can improve the situation regarding that resilience.
Panel 6: CARFMS Graduate Essay Contest (May 8th, 4:30)
Nicholas Hersh: This essay explores the case of claims based on sexual orientation and looks more specifically at claims made in Canada. It is in 1993, in the Ward case, that the Canadian Supreme Court stated that sexual minorities could be accorded protection under the Refugee Convention. Different factors have been determined in order to asses a claim based on sexual orientation such as cohabitation, division of family-type responsibilities and financial interdependence. Board members also look at the plausibility of a same-sex relation in the country of origin. However, this criterion when looked at through the stages of realization of homosexuality (tagged-identity model) can lead to misunderstandings of the case at hand; an individual at the first stages of the “homosexuality realization” would probably not be living an openly gay lifestyle in his country of origin and therefore could see his claim ejected based on this criterion.
Émilie Blackburn: This study looked at the Naki Valley Refugee Settlement. During a visit at the settlement, assessments were made in order to identify vulnerable individuals in the settlement; the aim was to identify “people with specific needs” (PSN verification). If one was identified as PSN, they were given further help such as food and increased health support. However, it was difficult to make accurate assessments based on the questions asked and the time spent with the individuals as well as the training that was given to the assessors. The main critique towards this activity was in regards to the actual purpose for the activity; was it to help the people (the PSN’s) or was it to create and add them to the date base?
Sule Tomkinson: This dissertation focused on the refugee determination process in Canada. It studied more specifically the reasons behind the discrepancy between refugee acceptance rates of Board Members. It was demonstrated that the success of a claim depended not only on the strength of the case but also on who heard the case. This paper argued that the discrepancy in the acceptance and rejection of a case comes from the professional socialization in regards to the instructions that they are given (dual ambitions, being soft yet firm), working conditions (complexity of the job, stress) as well as the expectations (productivity, not being mediatised). Based on how each member is socialized in regards to these three factors, the Board enables two hearing styles; the suspicious chronologist (focused on finding frauds and lies) and the neutral moderate (gives the benefit of the doubt).
Audrey L-Lachaîne : Cette étude cherche à mieux comprendre l’identité de jeunes refugiées en tentant de mieux comprendre, avec les jeunes, leur parcours migratoires et leur cheminement scolaire. Le projet de recherche est de type participatif; les jeunes ont crée des récits numériques individuel sur leur parcours à la suite de différents activités d’exploration de l’identité et d’articulation de leurs parcours. L’utilisation de la vidéo a servi pour aider les jeunes à réfléchir sur leurs actions, a les impliquer dans la recherche et pour les accompagner et les aider à exprimer leurs opinions et communiques leurs idées. Ce projet et cette technique d’ethnographie visuelle implique directement les jeunes dans un processus réflexif sur leur parcours afin de mieux cerner leur identité.
Day of 9th May/ Journée du vendredi 9 mai
Panel 1 : La gestion de la migration et de l’asile au sein de l’Union européenne : Impact sur les pays tiers.
Modérateur : Prof. Micheline Labelle
Panélistes : Martine Brouillette, Nanette Neuwahl, Abderrahi Kassou et Cécile Langevin.
Martine Brouillette : Du discours à la pratique : trajectoire d’une politique européenne de gestion des migrations mise en œuvre dans les pays limitrophes à l’Union européenne. Dans le cadre de ses recherches, Mme Brouillette pose la question de l’impact sur la coopération entre l’UE et les pays tiers de la perception qu’ont les décideurs de la politique migratoire européenne du phénomène de migration. À cette fin, Mme Brouillette adopte une méthodologie consistant en une étude des comptes rendus des réunions du Conseil de l’UE en matière de Justice et d’Affaires intérieures entre 2005 et 2011 ainsi que des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès de personnes sources. Enfin, elle fait une étude de cas sur le partenariat entre l’UE et la Moldavie. En conclusion, Mme Brouillette pose le constat d’une pérennisation et d’une diffusion du discours européen au travers des efforts de coopération de l’UE en Moldavie, d’un transfert de registres et de représentations sur le phénomène migratoire et sur la signification de sa « bonne » gestion et, enfin, d’une instrumentalisation de l’«obsession migratoire » de l’UE par la Moldavie pour en tirer des avantages.
Prof. Nanette Neuwahl : The long road to visa-free travel for Turkish nationals. In this presentation, Prof. Neuwahl looks at a visa-free travel between the EU and Turkey in a multi-disciplinary context. The presentation starts with an analysis of the Demirkan case, in which the Court of Justice declares that recipients of services are not covered by the stand-still provision of the Ankara Agreement. The case is explained by analysing the legal discretion of the Court of Justice and the factors that may have determined its outcome. Next, the economic, social and security implications of visa-free travel are examined. This leads us to evaluate what road lies ahead. The presentation highlights the difference between visa policy and border controls and shows that visa-free travel is much more than just a concession to Turks, but rather a policy beneficial to both Turkey and the European Union.
Cécile Langevin: La comparaison entre les ressortissants travailleurs turcs et les citoyens de l’UE concernant leur protection contre l’expulsion de l’Union européenne. Dans cette présentation, Mme Langevin tente de mettre en lumière le rapprochement de la situation des ressortissants turcs et européens dans le contentieux relatif à l’expulsion des ressortissants de longue durée par la Cour de Justice de l’Union européenne. Cette démarche est d’autant plus importante, selon elle, que la Turquie a vocation à rejoindre l’Union dans un futur plus ou moins proche.
Prof. Lucia Belucci : Femmes, enfants et pratiques traditionnelles : la réponse judiciaire à l’exclusion en France. La présentation porte sur la réception par le droit pénal français de la pratique traditionnelle de l’excision. Selon le professeur Belucci, le choix de la France comme étude de cas se justifie par l’approche particulière adoptée par ce pays ainsi que par l’importante jurisprudence produite par ses tribunaux sur cette question. Suite aux années 1980, l’excision est passée du délit au crime relevant de la compétence de la Cour d’assises avec, entre autres, le soutien de certaines associations féministes. L’absence de loi particulière se justifie, selon elle, par le modèle d’intégration « à la française » qui nie l’appartenance à une communauté au profit de l’individualité. Aussi, la question de l’équilibre à adopter entre ces deux ordres normatifs que sont la législation pénale et la tradition se pose.
Panel 2: The Post-Exclusion Dilemma? What Should States do with Those Refugee Claimants who are Excluded from Convention Refugee Status but cannot be Sent Back to Their Countries of Nationality or Former Habitual Residence?
The main point discussed in this panel was what to do with the persons excluded from refugee status. This exclusions are justified by the fact that the claimants are suspected of commission of international crimes as war crime, torture or genocide. It is a matter of fact that those refugee claimants cannot always be sent back to their origin countries.
International law provides that in this particular case, two solutions apply: prosecution or extradition. In fact, the Geneva Conventions impose an obligation to prosecute suspected war criminals. But in the case of prosecution, it appears that its cost is highly expansive. The lack of resources emphasizes the complexity of the situation.
In the case of extradition, it is not always possible. Indeed, the implementation of fundamental rights sometimes prevents extradition. Under the control of the European Court of Human Rights, some of the European states as United Kingdom faced several times the failure of extradition. In the UK case, it appears that the governmental point of view is that prosecution should take place in the origin country. So the removal is the best solution according to this idea.
Then prosecution seems to be the ideal and the most appropriate solution. It is possible under universal jurisdiction. However, prosecuting those kinds of crimes supposes to collect evidences. And then, there is the difficult to answer the question of the quality of evidences which is prominent in International Criminal Law.
It appears that the post-exclusion dilemma seems to be hard to resolve. In the one hand, prosecuting those persons is not necessarily possible. In the other hand, the respect of fundamental rights can prevent the extradition.
As a result, we have those persons who are in between neither subject of prosecution nor subject of extradition. But what do we do with those person? In addition of that, the fact that they are not convicted but only suspected doesn’t allow them to claim refugee status.
Panel 3 : Canada’s Refugee and resettlement Policy : Coherence and Incorehence
Leaded by the chair Najib Raie, the panel started with Ashley Korn, the coordinator of the Client Support Service at the YMCA of the Greater Toronto, who presents: Government Assisted Refugee Youth Experiences in Ontario : Learning throught Youth Voice, a program to improve outcomes, by providing multiple of services for Government-assisted refugees (GARs) settling in Ontario in involving the communities to reach the needs of refugees, particularly in the case of the youth refugees who face many challenges in their resettlement regarding to achieving their educational goals. The consultation findings helped improve positive youth engagement and settlement to asses the needs of youth refugees. We followed up with David and Christa Sato, who present the Social Support in the lives of Sudanese Refugee Men as fathers in a Canadian Urban Center, a research who present the impact of migration on Sudanese fathers who had to adapt themselves to a Canadian life by analyzing the role of the social support plays in their live and by identifying the needs in social support for those fathers.
The third presentation was made by Tatiana Rother, an independent researcher who presents a paper on Abolition Theory : Application to immigration Holding Centres and Security certificates arguing that immigration practices including the use of detention centers and safety certificates, focus on revenge and punishment refugees. The prison system has been extended to incarceration of refugee and asylum seekers who have the right to seek refuge or asylum. The abolition theory, presents alternatives to change public perception and government policies regarding that situation. We finished this panel with the presentation of Jamie Liew, from University of Ottawa, who presents the paper Taking it personally : Delimiting Gender-Based Claims Using the Complementary Protection Provision in Canada who argue that there are three alarming trends from a study based on the latest applications based on gender of refugees. First, he Canadian complementary protection does not fill in the gaps left under section 96 of the IRPA and does not allowed the production of a harmful discourse surrounding violence against women. The complementary protection is use to deny asylum to women who have legitimate gender-base claims.
Panel 4: Detention and Return of Forced Migrants: Innovative Theories and Local Experiences
Ine Lietaert: This study looked at the assisted voluntary return (AVR) programs for migrants and more specifically at the Belgium case. Belgium was the second country to start this sort of program. Throughout the year there have been changes in the Belgium AVR program in regards to the support given to the migrants; there has been an increase in the support given. However, there has been a major shift in the goals of these programs; it shifted from a program for migrants to a program for government to send individuals back home.
Gulay Kilicaslan: This paper focuses on the consequences of forced migration in Turkey, concentrating on the case of the Kurdish forced migrants in Turkey during the period of conflict between the Turkish state and Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK) in the 1990’s. During the Peace Process in Turkey, IDP’s (internally displaced peoples) became hopeful of repopulating their homeland in the Kurdish region but it was difficult to have a safe return since there was a lack of facilities in their homeland. IDP’s who have lost their village feel a loss of environment, a loss of their world; they don’t feel they belong. Their future plan is to reconstruct their villages on their own despite the government’s inactions.
Tina Hessami: The focus of this paper is on the government and the rule of law of the country of origin in regards to post-conflict property restitution. It concentrates on the autonomous province of Kurdistan in Northern Iraq and the property restitution following the forced migration of the Kurdish populations. The first ever mention of the principle of “the right to return” at the international level was in 2005 in the UN Pinheiro principles. At the more local level, in Iraq, there is no constitutional right in regards to property restitution. This study recommends that in order to have a property regime and a right to return that functions, there has to be a constitutional framework and some adherence to that constitutional right (rule of law.)
Soorej Jose Puthoopparambil: This study explores how immigrant detainees cope with detention and aims to find solutions to minimize the effects in their health which includes their physical, mental and social wellbeing. This study concentrated on the detainees in Swedish detention centers. Three themes emerged from the research: stressors in detention, feeling managed and controlled by the system and being forced into passivity. This study recommends an improvement in the staff-detainee interaction and it furthermore identified different barriers to health, such as language barriers, which could be improved in order to help detainees.
Anneke Smit: This paper argues that although housing and property restitution is important, it probably won’t have the effect that people want it to have. The process of property restitution has an important role to play in reconciliations but it is only one of the aspects to be taken into consideration. More importantly is the process of urban planning, of rebuilding post-conflict which may have a more positive impact in terms of durable solutions. Cities should be created in post-conflict areas which would encourage reconciliation and reintegration of groups.
1:00 p.m.- 2:30 p.m.
Panel 1 : Cohérences et incohérences dans la politique d’intégration des migrants : L’expérience canadienne.
Modérateur : Valentin Lara
Panélistes : Guillaume Rousseau, Fabio Scetti, Séverine Garnier et Roxane Caron.
Prof. Guillaume Rousseau : Pour une loi-cadre sur la convergence culturelle. Dans le cadre de sa présentation, le Prof. Rousseau fait une analyse du concept de convergence culturelle avant de proposer une traduction législative de ce concept. À cette fin, il s’appuie sur certaines lois-cadres existantes comme la Loi sur le multiculturalisme canadien afin de proposer une loi équivalente applicable au Québec. Il élabore ainsi la Loi sur la convergence culturelle dans laquelle il identifie la langue française comme véhicule de la culture québécoise qui est et doit demeurer la culture dominante afin de rendre possible la convergence. Par ailleurs, il refuse le principe d’assimilation au profit de celui d’intégration. Enfin, la loi, qui met l’emphase sur la culture et non sur la race ou la religion, se veut être le véritable visage du nationalisme québécois : celui d’un « humanisme culturel ».
Fabio Scetti : Langues et intégration sociale – groupes minoritaires et visibilité : La « communauté portugaise » à Montréal. Dans le cadre de ses recherches, M. Scetti étudie l’intégration linguistique chez les immigrants appartenant à la communauté portugaise de Montréal dans un contexte caractérisé par la domination du français et de l’anglais. M. Scetti met notamment en lumière le contraste qui s’est créé, avec l’entrée en vigueur de la Loi 101, entre les immigrants portugais arrivés dans les années 1950 et ayant eu une scolarisation en langue anglaise qui fut leur langue d’intégration et les Portugais arrivés après la loi et dont la scolarité fut en français. Le portugais redevient, ainsi, la langue de communication entre ces deux groupes. En conclusion, cette politique linguistique a eu des résultats différents selon qu’il s’agisse de la sphère publique ou privée. En ce qui concerne la sphère publique, l’enseignement du français semble avoir remporté un certain succès tandis que dans la sphère privée, même s’il faut encore attendre les effets de la Loi 101, la progression du français comme langue d’usage « à la maison » est à prévoir, mais la langue portugaise semble demeurer, toutefois, un moyen de communication indispensable.
Séverine Garnier : Voix de colombiennes en exil au Québec : défis, stratégies et ressources – une perspective critique. Cette étude porte sur l’expérience subjective de Colombiennes ayant immigré à Québec avec le statut de réfugié en adoptant une perspective systémique. Selon Mme Garnier, cette étude a contribué à : donner la possibilité de se livrer pour les participantes en faisant part de leur expérience, d’apporter une documentation sur les « réalités » que vivent ces femmes à la communauté colombienne, de modéliser le processus d’adaptation pour les milieux de pratique et, enfin, d’opérer une critique du modèle de l’individu en transition.
Prof. Roxane Caron : Des femmes réfugiées palestiniennes au Liban : les « encampées des encampés »? Cette présentation porte sur les femmes réfugiées palestiniennes au Liban analysé à travers une approche théorique basée sur le féminisme postcolonial. Le Prof. Caron nous fait part de ses rencontres et de ses échanges avec ces femmes en soulevant, notamment, l’important rôle d’acteur qu’elles endossent que ce soit par la transmission de la religion, le devoir de mémoire, qui demeure important pour les Palestiniens, ou encore l’éducation et le savoir auprès des plus jeunes.
Panel 2: Mobility and Border Controls: A Comparative Perspective (May 9th, 1:00)
Bruno Dupeyron (ABSENT)
Heather Johnson: At the core of this paper is the idea of rethinking borders and border spaces in order to deal with migration. It explores the idea of exploring the journey that migrants take instead of looking at the border itself as the break in the journey. The border is seen as a definitive break for the migrant; old experiences end on one side of the border and new experiences begin on the other side of the border. This paper argues that instead of concentrating on only the borders as the curial point in migration, we should observe the paths taken by the migrants as their own political space. It also discusses the idea of looking at migration from a different perceptive than the state perspective; we should move away from state laws and to do so, there is a need to talk to migrants to have a better understanding of their migration experiences.
Jennifer Hyndman: This study was conducted mainly in relation to the Dadaab camps in Kenya. It looks at the reasoning behind the prolonged displacement or the individuals in these camps as well as analyzing the humanitarian space in these camps in relation to the different kidnappings and attacks in these camps. The camps that were supposed to be temporary in order to provide the essentials to the displaced people have been there for over 22 years. Additionally, due to the different kidnappings and attacks in and around the camps, the humanitarian space has been reduced; humanitarian workers don’t want to go or can’t go because of the kidnappings and attacks.
Maria Theresa Cappiali (ABESNT)
Panel 3: Securitization of Asylum and Immigration and Human Rights Challenges : A Comparative Perspective
Leaded by chair Sean Rehaag, the panel start with Stephanie J.Silverman presenting the paper : The Turn from last to first resort: Mandatory Detention of Migrants and Asylum Seekers in Canada and Australia developing the theory that mandatory detention came from precise crisis, usually to serve a specific purpose. Government has used mandatory detention as a solution to a situation like arrival major vessels, which is problematic because of costs and social and financial impacts, but also bring the question why we haven’t move forward to a better practice yet. We followed up with Delphine Nakache, Detention or Punishment ? The immigration detention system in Canada who present her study to understand what is happening with the detention of the asylum seekers especially when they are hold in correctional facilities. The securitisation of immigration is important, but it doesn’t take in consideration recent developments such as the interpretation of penal logic in immigration issues. Migration policies and penal policies have always been mechanisms of social control, related to each other, but they shouldn’t be. Because of the negative impact it had on migrants, they should work in parallel and don’t be combined.
The third presentation was by Graham Hudson who talk about a study Truly exceptional? How Canada justifies deporting asylum seekers to face torture. Despite the fact that the risk of torture being returned to his country of origin should prevent the deportation of an asylum application refused, many cases are identified. Several factors explain this unfortunate practice which among other lack of procedural fairness, and administrative/judicial deference to the executive. While giving a picture of the situation, the study also provides an assessment of these practices and recommendations to change the deplorable situation. And the last presentation was made by Idil Atak, from Ryerson University, who presented the paper: Implementation of the “Designated Country of Origin” Concept in Canada : Lessons to be learned from the European experience which examine the impact, especially on human rights, of the introduction, in 2010, of the concept of “ safe country of origin ” based on the European model and policies by Canadian government and argue that examine the European experience can certainly be useful for the analysis of potential impacts. Especially in the context that Canada has not implemented a comprehensive evaluation of the Immigration Reform and of the selection criteria of “ safe country of origin ”.
Panel 4: Forced Labor, Human Trafficking and Protection of the Victims
Jill Hanley, Alexandra Ricard-Guay, McGill School of Social Work & Coalition québécoise contre la traite humaine, Cross-Sectoral Collaboration for the Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking: Challenges and Best Practices
This presentation explored the results of a pan-Canadian study initiated by Quebec’s CATHII, looking at the challenges and best practices among the emerging network of anti-trafficking coalitions that have made the protection of victims of human trafficking their priority, aiming to coordinate existing community and public services and, when necessary, innovating new ones. Theses are some of main Challenges facing inter-sectoral collaboration : Lack of resources, developping trust between different sectors, understanding the limits and possibility of different groups mandates, respecting confidentiality and the limits of some types of information, differences related to the definition of human trafficiking, huge diversity of actors, communication.
Eugénie Dépatie-Pelletier, Denise Helly, Lessons from Canada: Guestworker Regimes as « 2-Step Immigration Programs facilitating Just-in-time Integration and Circular Migration » to Minimize Risk of Forced Labor
For guestworkers programs to work for everyone, states must minimize their negative effects on local wags and working conditions. To do so, states must modernize temporary work programs by converting them all to 2-step immigration programs facilitating both “just-in time” integration ino the labour market and the return of migrant workers and families in their countries of origin. This can be achieved if: 1 – long-term labour shortages are dealt with through one-step immigration programs that are more labour market responsive. 2- guest worker programs are only used to address genuine and current skill shortages. 3- the major obstacles to guest workers capacity to enforce their labour rights are removed 4- Recruitment rules are modernized to make employers liable for abuse of workers by the recruiter and ensure that both the both sending and the receiving government play more active roles in the placement and re-hiring of guest workers.
Bethany Hastie, Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Programs: Exploitation by Design?
This presentation explored the underlying context and reasons for growing concerns around exploitation and abuse under Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Programs [TFWPs] in recent years. The presentation argued that there are many coherent features across the various streams of the TFWPs which are either institutionally exploitative, or enable exploitation to occur by creating vulnerability for migrant workers, including the existence of an employer-specific work permit, limitations on participation and residency, and jurisdiction limitations concerning oversight and monitoring of the programs. Though migrant workers under the TFWPs often possess formal legal rights, this presentation further argued that the regulatory regime prohibits the ability to substantively access and enforce these rights, which creates a culture of impunity towards migrant workers. As a result, migrant workers under the TFWPs in Canada are legally, economically and socially marginalized.
Danesh Jayatilaka, Kopalapillai Amirthalingam, Rajith W. D. Lakshman, Post-conflict trafficking vulnerabilities in Sri Lanka: An insight into victims, perpetrators and ways for protection
The causes and consequences of human trafficking are multifaceted and victims undergo a range of violations. The situation in post conflict backdrops, such as the case in Sri Lanka, is particularly challenging due to the additional security and access related variables that come into play. The research conducted illustrated that locals fell victim to new types of perpetrators that preyed on victims especially due to the new economic, markets, trade, and mobility aspects that were at play. Due to this reason interventions needed to be carried out in multiple sectors including macro, meso, and micro levels for maximum effect when combating trafficking.
Panel 5 : Immigration and Refuge : Cohérences et Incohérences
Modérateur : Sarah Barrere
Linda Guerry, L’approche sociale et internationale des migrations. Perspectives historiques:
La communication se concentre sur une organisation en particulier l’International Migration Service (IMS) qui, en marge du milieu des réformateurs internationaux dont l’une des préoccupations est de passer d’un régime d’assistance à un régime de droit des étrangers, a pour objectif de proposer des services internationaux aux migrants et développer la recherche sur les migrations d’un point de vue social. Elle se concentre particulièrement sur la construction d’une question sociale internationale des migrations et l’émergence d’une nouvelle catégorie de personnes conceptualisée dans le cadre de la famille et considérée comme vulnérable dans le contexte des années 1920: celle des femmes et des enfants migrants. L’IMS veut faire entendre son point de vue au sein de l’espace ouvert et lieu d’élaboration de questions sociales que sont les nouvelles organisations internationales (SDN, BIT).
Marie Claude Haince, Architecture de la gestion et du contrôle migratoire au Canada : une enquête ethnographique.
Au Canada, la gestion de l’immigration s’actualise à travers un principe d’inclusion/exclusion des immigrants. Elle prend corps au sein d’un régime de gouvernementalité qui permet le déploiement de dispositifs régulant la mobilité à travers des technologies de contrôle subtiles. Sur la base d’une étude ethnographique du processus de sélection des immigrants au Canada, l’intervenante mène une analyse de la gestion et du contrôle migratoire au Canada à travers la quotidienneté de la gestion de l’immigration. Trois rapports sont spécifiquement examinés pour mettre en évidence cette « mise en acte du droit » à travers laquelle s’actualise les « triages » visant à favoriser l’arrivée d’immigrants « désirés » et à restreindre la venue d’« indésirables » : le rapport à l’espace, le rapport au temps et le rapport au pouvoir.
Thierno Souleymane Barry, De la protection spécifique des enfants non accompagnés, des enfants réfugiés et des enfants apatrides à l’aune des conventions internationales et des lois internes des états : quel en est le portrait et il y a-t-il matière à amélioration
Face au durcissement des conditions d’obtention des titres de séjour, avec la multiplication des foyers de tension à travers le monde et la paupérisation croissante des pays du Sud, il est de plus en plus courant de voir débarquer dans le pays du Nord des enfants seuls qui soit demandent le statut de réfugié soit sont dans une situation d’apatridie ou de non accompagnement. L’enfant réfugié mérite en effet une protection supplémentaire, en vertu des conventions internationales qui lui accordent une protection catégorielle comme la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant. Deux axes principaux sont à observer : les pratiques actuelles en matière d’accueil et d’intégration des enfants non accompagnés, réfugies et apatrides ainsi que les moyens à mettre en œuvre assurer une protection spécifique efficace à cette catégorie particulière de personnes vulnérables.
Dulce Maria Herrera Cruz : absente
Serge Frederic Mnoumegne : absent
3:00 à 4:30
Panel 1: Protection of Migrants and refugees’ human Rights : A theoretical and Comparative analysis
Leaded by the Honourable Justice Kashim Zannah as chair, the panel started with a presentation by Mark F.N. Franke : Reconciling the Rights of migrants with political Discourses over migration through critique of the legal and spatial fantasies of citizenship arguing that there is a lack of human rights respect of people on the move in the laws. That distance between the rights of migrants and political discourse may be reconciled only when ideologies and relationship between citizens and the state will be redesigned. This implies the idea that rights, regarding citizenship, can’t be conceived according to legal space of belonging. The second presentation was by Giorgia Dona, presenting Rethinking the Meaning of Home in Protracted Refugee Situation, a paper on migrants who are unfortunately “waiting in transit” for resettlement. The temporary solutions as refugees ‘camp or urban center became for a lot of people, a long-term situation redefining the concept of home. A lot of people become invisible, without a proper citizenship, leaving under a protection of a state, but not under a protection of the state.
We followed up with David Fitzgerald, presenting the study examine: The Asylum Paradox: Remote Control of Forced Migration to the Global North. Paradoxes of control of asylum seekers emerge from the fragmented nature of nation-states and civil societies, where actors pursue different and sometimes contradictory goals. Just as the human rights standards for asylum have become universal by undermining the sovereignty of the state, some states use different tools to keep forced migrants away from their territory and deny their access to international guarantees and rights. But sometimes, asylum seekers succeed. Furthermore, even many asylum-seekers whom the state has gone to immense effort to deter and intercept are afforded asylum status if they can make it past the obstacles thus demonstrating all of the incoherencies in asylum policies. Last presentation of the panel was by Bernard Duhaime, presenting: Defending the Human rights of Migrants in the Americas: Revisiting the Dorzema et al. vs Dominican Republic Case, rewieing the principles developed by the Inter-American institutions regarding the human rights of migrants by explaining the strategy and legal arguments used in court to demonstrated how the State violated the former’s right to equality.
Panel 2: Coherence and Incoherence in Migration and Refugee Policies: Local Experiences
Incoherent exclusion: considering self-deportation in a sanctuary city
Tanya Aberman (York University) presented her research project on self-deportation and voluntary return programs. To speak of self-deportation, it is necessary to make a preliminary distinction between desired migration and undesired migration.
According to her, self-deportation includes the people who chose not to fight the deportation by silence.
Toronto has become the first sanctuary city in 2013 in Canada. Migrants without status can access local services without fearing deportation. The principle of those programs are to protect undocumented migrants.
She will study the different programs of voluntary returns and their impacts. For that, she will conduct her research based on institutional ethnography. She will consider the intersectional implications and the identity feeling regarding self-deportation.
“Uunhoming” versus “durable peace”: the situation of tamil displaced persons in jaffna and south india
Diotima Chattoraj (Ruhr University) presented her work research on the situation of Tamil displaced people. She selected two camps.
She focused on the notions of “home” and “belonging” interpreted based on the experience of those Tamil displaced persons in Jaffna and South India. She explained how difficult it is to construct the feeling of “home” and “belonging” in their situation.
She conducts her research on field as she was interested to understand and rely on those subjective constructions and their interpretation made by the displaced people. She wants to demonstrate how displacement affects the home and belonging feelings when resettlement is particularly problematic.
She will base her conclusion on the results of field investigation and materials collected from different actors.
Panel 3: Cohérences et incohérences dans l’intégration des migrants au niveau local, national, régional
Harith El-Dabbagh, Les mariages “gris” devant le juge québécois :
Les mariages “gris” se caractérisent par l’intention frauduleuse de l’un des futurs conjoints qui se sert du mariage comme moyen pour immigrer en trompant l’autre. Définies comme des « escroqueries sentimentales à but migratoire », ces mariages posent de nombreux problèmes juridiques. Les tribunaux québécois sont de plus en plus confrontés à des demandes en annulation de mariage intentées par l’époux citoyen canadien ou résident permanent du Canada contre le conjoint étranger. A travers un examen critique de quelques décisions récentes le conférencier met l’accent sur les difficultés de preuve et le flottement jurisprudentiel qui règne en la matière débouchant à ce qu’on peut qualifier d’« impressionnisme judiciaire ».
Idil Atak, Période de résidence permanente conditionnelle au Canada : Porte ouverte à la violence conjugale?
En octobre 2012, le gouvernement fédéral a mis en place une période de « résidence permanente conditionnelle » pour certains conjoints parrainés. Selon les nouvelles règles dès que la résidence permanente est reçue au Canada, le couple doit demeurer en relation pour un autre deux ans. Selon les partisans des cette mesure, la mise en œuvre d’une période de résidence permanente conditionnelle contribuera à lutter contre la « fraude relative au mariage ». Avec cette nouvelle norme, on assiste à une instrumentalisation du droit ainsi qu’à l’introduction des mesures législatives exceptionnelles. Ladite mesure pourrait ainsi aboutir à plus de victimisation (l’exemple des femmes qui sont contraintes d’endurer la violence conjugale pendant ces deux années conditionnelles). Elle montre également que le gouvernement perçoit la migration comme une question de sécurité et les migrants comme des abuseurs de la générosité des Canadiens. Cette politique met en danger la réalisation d’autres objectifs de la LIPR, à savoir, le bénéfice économique, l’intégration sociale, le regroupement familial dans le respect de la Charte canadienne et les instruments internationaux des DH auxquels le Canada est signataire.
Lucia Bellucci, Femmes, enfants et pratiques traditionnelles : la réponse judiciaire à l’excision en France : She was absent.
Said Hammamoun, De l’ambivalence du droit au respect de la vie familiale des migrants dans l’UE :
Le statut du migrant non européen relève de deux approches distinctes en droit de l’Union européenn.Cette presentation démontrer que ces deux approches ne procèdent pas de la même logique. Dans la première approche , il était question, dès le départ, de concilier un intérêt particulier, visant à assurer la protection du droit à une vie familiale pour les non-communautaires, avec un intérêt général ayant comme objectif de se doter d’une politique migratoire commune visant la maîtrise des flux migratoires tout en laissant intact la compétence nationale en la matière.(directives 2003/86 & 2003/109) En revanche, la logique visée, dans la deuxième approche, était de donner un effet utile au droit de la citoyenneté européenne. Par conséquent, le statut du ressortissant de pays tiers membre de la famille d’un citoyen européen s’est construit autour du droit à une vie familiale normale pour le citoyen de l’Union. (directive 2004/38). Ces deux approches reflètent l’état de fragmentation concernant le droit applicable à la situation des migrants ressortissants de pays tiers et, partant, modulent la protection juridique de leur droit à une vie familiale en fonction du critère de rattachement au droit européen.
Panel 5: Canada’s Refugee Determination System: Coherence and Incoherence
Chair: Furio de Angelis
Donald Galloway: Refugees and Democratic Practice
In the last decade we have witnessed a sustained and wide ranging metamorphosis in two of our legal institutions. On the one hand the judiciary has begun to show significant deference to officials who administer our law , including those who administer our refugee laws.. On the other hand we have also witnessed a legislature that has ceded much of its power to the executive. Within Parliament and its committees, government policy is controlled by the prime minister’s office rather than be the representatives of the Canadian citizenry. Statutes are passed on the basis of a majority vote after cursory consideration of the wide ranges of opinions expressed in the legislature. In addition staffing decisions within tribunals reflect similar ideological outlooks as those that dominate within Parliament. The impact of these changes on refugees and refugee claimants has been devastating – access to a fair process has been restricted and access to health benefits has been reduced.
Stephen Meli: The Impact of Human Rights Treaties on Canadian Refugee Jurisprudence and Practice Since 1991:
This study present the results of a mixed-method empirical study of the impact of international human rights treaties on Canadian refugee jurisprudence and practice over the past twenty years. Based on a review and coding of thousands of published decisions from the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada and appellate courts, as well as interviews with Canadian refugee lawyers, the presentation analyze how adjudicators have relied on CAT, ICCPR, CEDAW, CRC, ICESCR and CERD in making refugee status determinations since 1991. This analysis allow for conclusions about the circumstances under which each treaty is most likely to assist refugees obtain relief, as well as those situations where they may be detrimental to refugees.
James Simeon: Canadian Judicial Perceptions of the Application and Interpretation of International Instruments in the Exclusion of Refugee Claimants under Article 1F(a) of the Refugee Convention
Convention refugee status is not available to those persons who have committed a war crime or crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime outside the country of refuge, or to those persons who are guilty of actions that are contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. These are the categories that exclude persons from Convention refugee status under Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. The Supreme Court of Canada’s (SSC) recent judgement in Ezokola (July 19, 2013) set a new standard for excluding those person who fall under Article 1F(a), that is, those refugee claimants who have committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a crime against humanity as defined under the international instruments that pertain to such crimes
Sean Rehaag: Canada’s New Refugee Determination System: A Preliminary Assessment
In 2012, Canada’s refugee determination process was revised. The revisions dramatically speed up the process, such that unsuccessful refugee claimants will be removed within months (rather than years) of their arrival. The revisions also reduce procedural and substantive protections for claimants who come from countries generally viewed as safe and for claimants who come to the country using human smugglers. In addition, the revisions facilitate removal of refugee protection from those who acquired it through fraud and for those who are no longer in need of protection. Government officials justified these revisions by pointing to a need to crack down on the alleged abuse of the refugee determination system. Other observers, including human rights organizations and associations of lawyers, have been more critical.
Roundtable Session: Refugee Integration in Resettlement Contexts
During this round table, it has been discussed the notions of refugee and integration.
The idea was to debate on those notions as to show how complex and challenging it is to define them.
First of all, the discussion shows that the notion of refugee is not that simple to define. It depends on lots of criteria and the political point of view. The refugee status may be defined by international texts but its definition in practice may be different according to the person or organization using it.
Second of all, the question of refugee integration has been very interesting to debate on. It appears that the term integration implemented to refugees is source of misunderstanding and questioning. In fact, some thinks that it is a rhetoric notion used by politics. Mostly, the general thought is that it is very difficult to think the refugee integration based on his/her specific status.
Indeed, they are refugees because they escaped persecutions. They are considered as vulnerable migrants. It is different form a basic migrant situation who came for economic motives. Refugees may share common things with general migrants but their situation was forced.
The discussion emphasizes those major differences between refugee integration and migrant integration. The idea of success and integration is not the same for those who left their country by force and those who left it by choice. It also impacts their willing and their capacity to integrate as it is required by the hosting country.
Some of the refugees will stay refugees for the rest of their lives with the refugee feeling. Some of them will integrate as it is provided by the general governmental requirements and leave their refugee status behind. However, it is not that simple to define and implement the notion of integration to refugees.